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Autor Tema: Medically Supervised Steroid Use  (Pročitano 8422 puta)

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Medically Supervised Steroid Use
« poslato: Avgust 01, 2007, 12:21:45 posle podne »

Medical Supervision of Individuals Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid (AAS) for Muscle Growth (Part 1)

by Bryan Haycock
Bryan is founder of Hypertrophy-Specific Nutrition. a dietary and sports supplement company dedicated to  creating and bringing to market new and innovative nutritional products. These products (e.g. Driver Protein and Primer Protein) are designed and formulated specifically for competitive athletes, and serve as a high-end option for the casual health and fitness enthusiast.
Disclaimer
The drugs discussed in this series of articles are, by and large, prescription drugs and should not be used without the supervision of a qualified physician. No attempt should be made to circumvent the laws in your area to obtain these drugs without a prescription. As always, MESO-Rx does not condone in any way the illegal acquisition and/or use of prescription drugs for purposes other than those approved by the FDA or other legally recognized regulatory bodies.
The information in this article is not intended to replace medical advice offered by your physician or health care provider.

Since the Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990  became law on November 29, 1990, physicians have struggled with the ethics of becoming involved with patients using anabolic steroids. There are serious repercussions for doctors’ accused of prescribing anabolic steroids to patients for physique augmentation. In addition, most doctors know very little about anabolic steroids and tend to have an exaggerated view of their risks. This results in a reluctance of doctors to adequately care for patients who are suspected of or obviously using steroids.
On the other side of this issue is the steroid-using patient. He or she is already hesitant to reveal to their doctor that they are in fact using steroids. They fear being judged by their physician, or even that their physician would try to report their illicit drug
use to the authorities. In the end, it is the patient who loses out, not the physician. In an effort to empower and/or enable steroid using individuals to receive adequate care from their personal health care provider, this article will provide information that the patient can take to their physician to encourage a spirit of cooperation without forcing the physician to feel as if they are
condoning illegal drug use. This doesn’t guarantee that your doc will cooperate, but it’s worth making the attempt.

Potential Health Problems Associated with Anabolic/Androgenic
Steroid Use
Cardiovascular
Ask your physician what the greatest risk of using Anabolic/Androgenic steroids (AAS) is and he/she will probably tell you  cardiovascular disease. In spite of this view there is no epidemiological data to support this belief. There are however alterations to both cholesterol homeostasis as well as structural changes to the heart muscle.

Cholesterol
Cholesterol makes up about 13% of the cell membranes. It plays an integral role in controlling the fluidity of the membrane. Acute muscle cell damage as experienced by strength athletes and bodybuilders increases the need for cholesterol and hence initiates cholesterol synthesis within the muscle cell to be used towards repairing the damaged membrane. Keep in mind that when the integrity of the cell membrane is compromised, the cell cannot carry out intracellular functions necessary for muscle growth.
It is well known that some AASs can lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels . Because of the aromatization of testosterone to estradiol, lipid abnormalities usually do not develop with moderate amounts of the testosterone esters or suspensions, and the ratio of HDL to total cholesterol generally remains constant. However, those compounds that do not aromatize are known to lower HDL. Low HDL levels have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk.

Recent research however shows that although some AAS can lower HDL, they may also create an  anti-atherogenic environment. Testosterone, despite lowering HDL cholesterol, intensifies reverse cholesterol transport and thereby exerts an anti-atherogenic rather than a pro-atherogenic effect.

Management Options for Hypercholesterolemia
The first treatment option should be dietary. Try to avoid dietary cholesterol and keep saturated fat to 10% of total fat calories. If that doesn’t work, try switching to an aromatizable androgen such as Test enanthate or other ester.
There are various drugs available to lower cholesterol. Of these certain ones should be avoided, namely, the "statins". Statins interfere with the cholesterol synthesis pathways, namely by inhibiting beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA). HMG-CoA is used to make cholesterol within cells. The statins are notorious for causing myopathies such as myalgia, myositis and rhabdomyolysis.
The drug of choice for the management of hypercholesterolemia in AAS using individuals should be the Fibrates, namely Tricor TM (Fenofibrate micronized/oral).

* ostatak teksta http://www.mesomorphosis.com/articles/haycock/medically-supervised-steroid-use.htm


kao i nastavak priče ....


Medical Supervision of Individuals Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid (AAS) for Muscle Growth (Part 2)

http://www.mesomorphosis.com/articles/haycock/medically-supervised-steroid-use-02.htm
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Odg: Medically Supervised Steroid Use
« Odgovor #1 poslato: Avgust 01, 2007, 03:36:56 posle podne »


Psychological and Behavioural Effects of Endogenous Testosterone Levels and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Among Males: A Review

by Michael S. Bahrke, Charles E. Yesalis III, and James E. Wright


Psychological Dependence and Withdrawal Effects of Anabolic Steroids

For the most part, individuals use anabolic-androgenic steroids to significantly improve appearance and/or performance beyond what would be expected from training alone. Also, individuals using anabolic-androgenic steroids appear to believe that higher doses and continued use result in greater gains, a belief that receives support from animal biochemistry studies (Bardin et al. 1990), from clinical responses in some anaemias (Sanchez-Medal et al. 1969), as well as from studies in athletes (Alen &Hakkinen 1985; Alen et al. 1984, 1985, 1987; Forbes 1985; Hakkinen & Alen 1986; Hervey et al. 1976, 1981; Kilshaw et al. 1975). When individuals discontinue using anabolic-androgenic steroids their size and strength diminish, often very dramatically (Alen & Hakkinen 1985; Alen et al. 1984, 1987; Forbes 1985; Hakkinen & Alen 1986), and this outcome, as well as any psychological effects of use which serve to create a new body image, improved self-esteem, heightened libido and general euphoria, are thought to motivate continued use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (Yesalis et al. 1989a, 1990b).

Yesalis et al. (1989a) found that approximately a quarter of adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid users reported behaviours, perceptions, and opinions which as consistent with psychological dependence. These high school users were significantly different from nonusers in several areas including self-perceptions of health and strength. The majority perceived their relative strength to be greater than average and their health as very good or better. Also, heavy users (+/= 5 cycles) were more likely, relative to other users, to use injectable anabolic-androgenic steroids, express intentions to continue to use anabolic-androgenic steroids regardless of health consequences, and take more than one anabolic-androgenic steroid at a time.

As with corticosteroids (Alcena & Alexopoulos 1985; Alpert & Seigerman 1986; Amatruda et al. 1965; Byny 1976; Dixon & Christy 1980; Judd et al. 1983; Kaufmann et al. 1982), increasing attention and discussion is being focused on the withdrawal effects that athletes encounter when they cease use of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Interestingly, many of the same effects attributed to anabolic-androgenic steroid use are alleged to occur following anabolic-androgenic steroid cessation. Purported withdrawal effects include mood swings, violent behaviour, rage and depression, possibly severe enough to lead to thoughts of suicide (Brower et al. 1989a,b 1990; Goldman et al. 1984; Editorial 1989). Pope and Katz (1988) report that 5 of their subjects (12%) developed major depression while withdrawing from anabolic-androgenic steroids. Duncan and Shaw (1985) suggest that weight and fluid loss may worsen (or be the cause of) the impending depression.

Tennant et al. (1988) recently described the case of apparent physical dependence on anabolic-androgenic steroids in a 23-year-old male bodybuilder who had been using anabolic-androgenic steroids (methandrostenolone 75mg and methenolone 150mg intramuscularly every other day and oxandrolone 20mg and oxymetholone 100mg orally each day) for 3 years and who was unable to abstain from anabolic-androgenic steroids without experiencing severe withdrawal symptoms, including depression, disabling fatigue and violent, paranoid, and suicidal thoughts and feelings. Urinalysis was negative for alcohol, amphetamines, cannabinoid metabolites, cocaine metabolites, opioids and phencylcidine. Classic opioid withdrawal symptoms appeared following naloxone administration and anabolic-androgenic steroid cessation. However, despite being treated with clonidine over the next 6 days and a decrease in withdrawal symptoms, the patient left the treatment programme and apparently resumed use of anabolic-androgenic steroids 7 days after admission.

Brower et al. (1989a) reported the case of a 24-year-old male noncompetitive weightlifter whose dependence on a combination of anabolic-androgenic steroids (200mg of testosterone cypionate intramuscularly every 3 days, 100mg of nandrolone decanoate intramuscularly every 3 days, 25mg of oxandrolone orally daily, 30 to 45mg of bolasterone subcutaneously every 2 to 3 days, and 1000 to 2000 units of human chorionic gonadotrophin intramuscularly every 2 to 3 days) met criteria for psychoactive substance dependence. Tolerance, withdrawal symptoms (depression, fatigue), and the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids to alleviate withdrawal symptoms had occurred. An uncontrolled pattern of anabolic-androgenic steroid use continued, despite adverse consequences such as severe mood disturbance (irritability, euphoria, anxiety, depression), marital conflict, and changes of the patient’s usual values and life goals.

Hays et al. (1990) also have reported a similar case in which a 22-year-old male noncompetitive weightlifter who had been using anabolic-androgenic steroids for 9 months (25mg of oxandrolone daily, nandrolone phenpropionate, testosterone propionate intramuscularly each week, and methandrostenolone) presented with complaints of depression and inability to cease anabolic-androgenic steroid use. The patient felt depressed, fatigued, had occasional temper outbursts, and slept less when taking the steroids. Steroid craving and decreased self-esteem were reported between periods of steroid use. Following 1 week and improvement in mood, the man was discharged from the hospital chemical dependency treatment unit.

In another study by Brower et al. (1990) of 8 anabolic-androgenic steroid-using weightlifters, all reported both withdrawal symptoms and uncontrolled use despite adverse consequences (feeling nervous, irritable, or depressed). Psychiatric, especially depressive, symptoms were prominent in most of the dependent users. Brower (1990) has suggested that some conventional drug abuse treatments such as pharmacotherapy (used with cocaine withdrawal) or psychotherapy may be effective with dependent anabolic-androgenic steroid users.

Finally, Kashkin and Kleber (1989) in their review, suggest that the psychoactive effects, withdrawal symptoms, and underlying biological mechanisms of steroid hormones, including anabolic-androgenic steroids, appear similar to the mechanisms and complications accompanying cocaine, alcohol or opioid abuse. They concur that a proportion of anabolic-androgenic steroid abusers may develop a sex steroid hormone dependence disorder and that treatment should be based on research into steroid effects on both opioid and aminergic neurotransmission systems and relapse prevention. It is both interesting in this regard, and suggestive of the difficulties facing drug abuse researchers and educators, that a study by Johnson et al. (1970) of the effects of testosterone enanthate (200mg intramuscularly once every 4 weeks over 7 months) on body image and behaviour in 5 young mentally retarded males with Klinefelter’s syndrome included not only a significant change from a feminine to a masculine body image, increased assertiveness, increased goal-directed behaviour and heightened sexual drive, but the majority of subjects expressed ‘…a desire to become further masculinised.’

These preceding findings must be tempered by the fact that individual responses to different anabolic-androgenic steroids, doses, and lengths of administration likely vary somewhat unpredictably. Further, beyond these reports, no threshold dosage that may produce these effects (mood swings, violent behaviour, rage, depression) or timecourse concerning the onset or elimination of these effects once anabolic-androgenic steroid use has been initiated or terminated have been fully documented (which may depend, in part, on the length of anabolic-androgenic steroid use, particular desired as well as undesired effects experienced, and a host of other factors). As Svare (1990) has indicated, several critical variables involved in modulating the behavioural effects of androgens in animals including sex, dose/duration, route of administration, type of androgen, and genotype, must be addressed when examining human anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse. Finally, weighttraining per se may be addictive in the sense of promoting compulsive, stereotypic, and repetitive behaviour to include not only the strength training but dieting, drug use and a host of other lifestyle variables as well.

http://www.mesomorphosis.com/articles/bahrke/bahrke11.htm

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Van mreže Nico

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Odg: Medically Supervised Steroid Use
« Odgovor #2 poslato: Avgust 01, 2007, 04:07:14 posle podne »
bas ste ljubazni doktorka

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Odg: Medically Supervised Steroid Use
« Odgovor #3 poslato: Avgust 01, 2007, 10:44:16 posle podne »


H v a l a !
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Odg: Medically Supervised Steroid Use
« Odgovor #4 poslato: Avgust 07, 2007, 09:10:03 posle podne »

Dr Goldman served as Special Advisor to the President's Council on Physical Fitness & Sports under Gov Schwarzenegger's Chairmanship of the Council.


Šta on kaže o upotrebi AAS ... interesantan članak, poduži ali ...

http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/drobson300.htm

p.s. Ako bude neophodan prevod ... pokušaćemo izaći u susret :P


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