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Heath-CarterManual
« poslato: Mart 07, 2009, 10:00:14 posle podne »
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Introduction
The technique of somatotyping is used to appraise body shape and composition. The
somatotype is defined as the quantification of the present shape and composition of the human body. It
is expressed in a three-number rating representing endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy
components respectively, always in the same order. Endomorphy is the relative fatness, mesomorphy is
the relative musculo-skeletal robustness, and ectomorphy is the relative linearity or slenderness of a
physique. For example, a 3-5-2 rating is recorded in this manner and is read as three, five, two. These
numbers give the magnitude of each of the three components. Ratings on each component of ½ to 2½
are considered low, 3 to 5 are moderate, 5½ to 7 are high, and 7½ and above are very high (Carter &
Heath, 1990). The rating is phenotypical, based on the concept of geometrical size-dissociation and
applicable to both genders from childhood to old age.
The Heath-Carter method of somatotyping is the most commonly used today. There are three
ways of obtaining the somatotype.
(1) The anthropometric method, in which anthropometry is used to estimate the criterion
somatotype.
(2) The photoscopic method, in which ratings are made from a standardized photograph.
(3) The anthropometric plus photoscopic method, which combines anthropometry and ratings
from a photograph - it is the criterion method.
Because most people do not get the opportunity to become criterion raters using photographs,
the anthropometric method has proven to be the most useful for a wide variety of applications.

Purpose
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a simple description of the anthropometric somatotype
method. It is intended for those who are interested in learning "how to do it". To obtain a fuller
understanding of somatotyping, its uses and limitations, the reader should consult "Somatotyping -
Development and Applications", by Carter and Heath (1990).